Home » Tertiary Minerals (TYM) » Tertiary Minerals #TYM – Audited Results for the year to 30 September 2019

Tertiary Minerals #TYM – Audited Results for the year to 30 September 2019

The Board of Tertiary Minerals plc is pleased to announce audited results for the year ended 30 September 2019.


In line with the Company’s strategy to build a new multi-commodity project portfolio to enable the Company to reduce its future geographical, technical, permitting and commodity risk exposure and provide long-term shareholder value, two new exploration projects have been acquired in the period:

Pyramid Project

Ø Geological analogies with high-grade multi-million ounce Fire Creek & Midas Gold Mines

Ø 20-year lease secured over group of 9 patented claims with option to purchase (subject to underlying royalties)

Ø Additional 25 mining claims staked to cover additional targets along strike

Ø Limited historical exploration (1989-90) has defined priority epithermal vein drill target:

· Drill hole PYR 9 – intersected visible gold and assayed 1.52m grading 17.8 g/t Au from 94.5m down hole

· PYR 9 ended in 1.52m grading 2.6 g/t Au at 115.8m depth

Ø PYR 9 was only drill hole to effectively test a cohesive 750m long open-ended gold-mercury-arsenic soil geochemical anomaly

Ø Claims contain a number of untested epithermal veins and stockwork target zones – 43 widespread surface samples assayed up to 7.27 g/t Au and averaged 1.3 g/t Au

Ø The State of Nevada:

· 5th largest gold producer in world

· 5.58 M oz of gold produced in 2018

· Ranked #1 most desirable mining jurisdiction in the world by The Fraser Institute

Ø The Company is currently planning an initial drilling programme; drill contractor selected to start as soon as possible.


Paymaster Polymetallic Project

Ø The Company staked claim to the Paymaster zinc-copper-silver-cobalt-tellurium prospect in Nevada, USA

Ø Grab samples assay up to 21% zinc (Zn), 6.5% lead (Pb), 3.3% copper (Cu) and 253g/t silver (Ag)

Ø Mineralisation intermittently exposed and sampled over 1.7km strike length

Ø Samples also contain high levels of high-tech metals tellurium and cobalt (Co)

Ø Successful soil sampling programme completed:

· 165 soil samples

· Significant elevated levels of Ag, Cu, Zn, Co and Pb over a strike length of over 2,000 metres, maximum values:

Ag: 17.5 ppm; Cu: 896 ppm; Zn: 872 ppm; Co: 33 ppm; Pb: 2251 ppm

A further two zones of zinc-silver mineralisation have also been identified in the field:

Ø Valley Prospect

· New thick skarn zone observed in the field: Approximately 350m long and up to 8m thick

· Rock sample taken from historic shaft spoil assayed 7.5% zinc, 4.3% lead and 180 g/t silver

Ø East Slope Prospect

· 650m long zinc soil anomaly (100-250 ppm Zinc) surrounding previously sampled outcrop of zinc-silver-cobalt bearing skarn mineralisation, including 175m long 250-500 ppm zinc soil anomaly

· Previous rock sample assays up to 20.9% zinc, 0.11% cobalt and 198 ppm silver within the prospect  


Market Abuse Regulation (MAR) Disclosure

Certain information contained in this announcement would have been deemed inside information for the purposes of Article 7 of Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 until the release of this announcement.


For more information please contact:

Tertiary Minerals plc:

Richard Clemmey, Managing Director

+44 (0) 1625 838 679

Patrick Cheetham, Chairman


SP Angel Corporate Finance LLP

Nominated Adviser and Broker

Richard Morrison

+44 (0) 203 470 0470

Caroline Rowe



Chairman’s Statement

I am pleased to present the Company’s Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 30 September 2019.


In my interim report in May 2019, I spoke of our disappointment in the decision of the Swedish Mining Inspectorate to overturn their 2016 grant of our mining concession for the Storuman Fluorspar Project and our submission of an appeal to the Swedish Government. The Mining Inspectorate’s decision was made on the basis that our proposed mine infrastructure and reindeer herding in the area could not coexist although their decision states that the economic aspects point in favour of granting the exploitation concession, that a permit regarding Natura 2000-area is unnecessary, that fluorspar is included in the EU list of critical raw materials and that a mining establishment would mean positive socio-economic benefit for the municipality of Storuman. Our appeal contends that the Mining Inspectorate did not adequately consider the extensive mitigation measures proposed for the local reindeer herding activities.


The Government has not yet decided on the appeal and, frustratingly, will not commit to a decision timeframe. Many new mining projects in Sweden are similarly affected and lobbying of the Government by other mining companies has not resulted in a change in the Government’s current position towards mining projects.


Financial constraints during the year have limited our ability to fund activities on other fluorspar projects and so only limited work has taken place on the Company’s large MB Fluorspar Project in Nevada. However, testwork is ongoing to address the metallurgical complexity that characterises the near surface mineralisation that would be mined in the early years of the Company’s preliminary mine plan. When finances allow we intend to progress the economic scoping study for development of the project. This may include further drilling of conceptual higher-grade targets in the northern part of the project. No work was carried out at the Lassedalen Fluorspar Project in Norway.


As a Board we have faced some difficult decisions in 2019 as our fluorspar projects have not sustained the value they once added to the Company and our efforts to acquire a more advanced project are limited by our size and available financial resources. Consequently, the Board initiated a parallel back-to-its-roots strategy of gold and base metal exploration with an emphasis on low cost value adding acquisition and exploration of gold and base metal projects in Nevada, USA. Nevada is ranked as the most desirable mining jurisdiction in the world by the Fraser Institute and in 2018 produced 5.58 million ounces of gold.


In line with this parallel strategy we are delighted to have acquired interests in two new projects in 2019 of which the most advanced is the Pyramid Gold Project in Nevada where we have leased a parcel of private land and staked additional mining claims. Limited exploration in the late 1980s defined a priority epithermal gold vein drill target defined by a single drill hole which intersected visible gold and assayed 1.52m grading 17.8 g/t Au from 94.5m down hole. The broader target and vein trend are defined by a cohesive 750m long open-ended gold-mercury-arsenic soil geochemical anomaly. We intend to drill this target as soon as possible.


We also staked claims to secure the Paymaster Project in Nevada where grab samples of skarn-type mineralisation have returned assays up to 21% zinc, 6.5% lead, 3.3% copper and 253 g/t silver and where mineralisation is intermittently exposed and sampled over 1.7km strike length. We conducted a soil sampling programme in 2019 and identified the Valley and East Slope zinc-silver prospects as key prospects for follow up exploration in 2020.


In 2019, the stock market for junior mining companies on the AIM market was the most challenging I have experienced in over 20 years. Brexit was undoubtedly a factor as were the trade tensions between the US and China. For Tertiary, these factors have been exacerbated by the negative news from Sweden for our key Storuman Project and the inertia of the Swedish Government in its decision making.


Whilst we raised a modest amount of money in early 2019 to fund our activities in the first half of the year, fundraising for Tertiary and its peers at near market prices has been nearly impossible in the second half of 2019 and we have not been prepared to accept opportunistic offers of heavily discounted share placings. Instead, following the end of the financial year, we accepted an offer of funding from Bergen Global Opportunity Fund, LP, a U.S. based institutional investment fund and raised an initial £232,000 before expenses through the issuance of zero-coupon convertible securities as part of a facility having a nominal value of up to £653,000.  We believe this will prove less dilutive to shareholders at this time.  The balance of this facility can be drawn down by agreement with Bergen. As has been the case at year-end for several previous years, the Company will need to raise further funds in the next 12 months to continue as a going concern.


Market commentators are anticipating a better year for small cap companies in 2020 and we look forward to reporting news from our exciting new gold and base metal projects in Nevada over this coming year.


Our Annual General Meeting for the year ended 30 September 2019 will be held in our offices in Macclesfield this year, on Thursday 19 March 2020.





Patrick Cheetham

Executive Chairman

18 February 2020



Strategic Report

Group Overview


Company’s Aims

· Increase shareholder value through the discovery and development of valuable mineral deposits.

· Reduce the Group’s geographical, technical, permitting and commodity risk exposure.


Company’s Strategy

· Build and explore a new multi-commodity project portfolio.

· Continue the evaluation of the Company’s fluorspar deposits.

· Operate only in stable, democratic and mining friendly jurisdictions.


Principal Activities

· The identification, acquisition, exploration and development of mineral deposits including precious metals , base metals and industrial minerals in Nevada, USA and northern Europe.


The head office is based in Macclesfield in the United Kingdom with core operating locations in Nevada, USA, Sweden and Norway.


Company’s Business Model

For exploration projects, the Group prefers to acquire 100% ownership of mineral assets at minimal cost. This either involves applying for exploration licences from the relevant authority or negotiating rights with existing project owners for initially low periodic payments that rise over time as confidence in the project value increases.


The Group currently operates with a low-cost base to maximise the funds that can be spent on exploration and development – value adding activities. The Company has five full-time employees including the Managing Director who work with and oversee carefully selected and experienced consultants and contractors. During the year the Board of Directors comprised one independent Non-Executive Director, the Managing Director and the Chairman.

Administration costs are reduced via an arrangement governed by a Management Services Agreement with Sunrise Resources plc, whereby Sunrise Resources pays a share of the cost of head office overheads. As at the 30 September 2019, Tertiary holds 2.71% of the issued ordinary share capital of Sunrise Resources plc.


The Company’s activities are financed by periodic capital raisings, through share placings or share related financial instruments. Access to capital through this method has continued to be very challenging and this is a limiting factor to the speed at which the Company can progress the development of its projects. When projects become more advanced, or as acquisition opportunities advance, the Board will seek to secure additional funding from a range of various sources, for example debt funding, pre-financing through off-take agreements and joint venture partnerships.



Review & Operating Performance


Pyramid Gold Project, Nevada, USA


As part of the Company’s strategy to build a new multi-commodity project portfolio, in May 2019, the Company secured exploration rights and an option to purchase a group of claims in the Pyramid Mining District of Nevada. The project is located 25 miles northwest of Reno and is readily accessible from State Highway 445 which crosses the northwest tip of the project.


Project Highlights

· 20-year lease secured over a group of 9 patented claims with options to purchase (subject to underlying royalties)

· Additional 25 mining claims staked to cover additional targets along strike

· Located in productive Walker Lane porphyry copper/epithermal gold belt

· Limited historical exploration (1989-90) has defined priority epithermal vein drill target:

Drill hole PYR 9 – intersected visible gold and assayed 1.52m grading 17.8 g/t Au from 94.5m down hole

PYR 9 ended in 1.52m grading 2.6 g/t Au at 115.8m depth

PYR 9 was only drill hole to effectively test a cohesive 750m long open-ended gold-mercury-arsenic soil geochemical anomaly

Claims contain a number of untested epithermal veins and stockwork target zones – 43 widespread surface samples assayed up to 7.27 g/t Au and averaged 1.3 g/t Au


Geology and Mineralisation

The Pyramid Mining District lies at the northwest end of the Walker Lane mineral belt, a major northwest trending structural deformation zone and a highly productive gold, silver and copper producing region which is host to numerous past and currently producing multi-million ounce epithermal gold deposits as well porphyry copper and porphyry molybdenum deposits.


Within the Pyramid Mining District, the Company’s Pyramid Project is underlain by a thick sequence of mid-late Tertiary age (23 Ma old) rhyolitic tuffs interpreted by the Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology to have formed within an east-west elongated Caldera structure named the Perry Canyon Caldera.


The gold veins at Pyramid lie within the Perry Canyon Caldera and are interpreted from historical mapping and mineral exploration to lie on the margins of a large and deeply buried porphyry system in the southeast part of the district that is currently claimed by copper producer Asarco LLC (a division part of Groupo Mexico). At the higher erosional levels currently preserved at Pyramid such porphyry systems are prospective for high-sulphidation gold deposits (in more central areas) such as those found further south in the Walker Lane at the Goldfield Mining District (4 million ounces of past production at 1oz gold/ton) and low and intermediate-sulphidation epithermal deposits (of which there are many examples in the Walker Lane) in more peripheral areas where the Company’s claims are located. This pattern of mineralisation is similar to that of many large porphyry systems in the US, Peru and the Pacific Basin countries.


Past Mining and Exploration

In the main part of the Pyramid District, precious metals were mined from three moderately to steeply dipping, northwest-striking vein systems named after the prominent mines that occur along them – Ruth, Burrus, and Bluebird. The Company’s claim interests cover the Ruth vein system and a number of parallel vein systems and zones of alteration.  In addition to abundant quartz and pyrite, vein minerals in unoxidized ore from the Ruth vein system include barite, anglesite, galena, sphalerite, acanthite, gold and cassiterite.


The Pyramid Mining District was established in 1866 with only small-scale production reported. Modern exploration in the Pyramid district has focused primarily on the search for porphyry copper mineralisation with only limited exploration having been carried out for gold.


The only documented field exploration in the area of the Company’s claims was carried out by Battle Mountain Gold Mining (“Battle Mountain”) who leased the project from the current lessors, Golden Crescent Corporation, in the period 1988-89. Battle Mountain carried out surface sampling, soil sampling and drilled 10 shallow exploration holes for a total of 1,006m of drilling to depths between 43m and 140m.


Soil sampling was conducted on a 30m x 120m grid within a confined area 600m x 600m centred on Battle Mountain’s main target area, the Ruth Mine vein system and associated vein stockwork. This identified a series of gold-in-soil anomalies and eight of their ten drill holes were designed to test a broad gold anomaly located just northwest of the Ruth Mine. These intersected areas of anomalous gold up to 1.5m grading 1.64 grammes/tonne gold (g/t Au) in hole PYR 1 from 10.7m depth.


Battle Mountain’s two other drill holes were designed to test a parallel vein west of the Ruth vein system which correlates with a separate strong gold-arsenic-mercury soil anomaly, mercury and arsenic being strongly associated with gold in epithermal gold deposits. This soil anomaly is open ended and continues strongly to the northwest and southeast boundaries of the sampled area.


Drill hole PYR 9 on this western line intersected high-grade gold mineralisation and visible gold within a sample thickness of 1.52m grading 17.8 g/t Au from 94.5m downhole. A broad zone of low-grade mineralisation continued to the end of the hole at 115.8m where the last 1.52m sample graded 2.6 g/t Au.


PYR 10 targeted the same western line soil anomaly some 150m to the southwest but was interpreted to have been drilled in the wrong direction and made no significant gold intersections.


Battle Mountain did not carry out any follow up exploration.


Next Steps

The association of high-grade gold mineralisation in a previous drill hole associated with a strong and open-ended gold soil anomaly supported strongly by epithermal pathfinder elements mercury and arsenic presents a compelling drill target.


Similar narrow high-grade epithermal gold deposits in Nevada have hosted multi-million-ounce deposits such as the producing Midas Mine where the main veins produced more than 2.2 million ounces of gold and 26.9 million ounces of silver between 1998 and 2013.


Tertiary Minerals intends to follow up Battle Mountain’s drilling and soil sampling results with an initial drilling programme as soon as possible. Core drilling is planned as water, which can affect sample quality, was encountered in drilling both holes PYR 9 and 10.


The broader potential of the vein systems on the Project area are highlighted by the results of 43 surface chip samples taken by Battle Mountain from various outcropping veins and old mine workings within the Company’s Project area. These assayed up to 7.27 g/t Au and averaged 1.3 g/t Au.


This high prospectivity was confirmed by surface grab carried out by the Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology during a regional assessment in 1999 when samples from the 1km long Ruth vein system averaged 1.3 g/t gold and 131 g/t silver. The highest gold content, 8 g/t Au, was from the Surefire Mine area which has never been drill tested.



Paymaster Polymetallic Project, Nevada, USA


In February 2019, the Company staked claim (19 claims) to the Paymaster zinc-copper-silver-cobalt-tellurium prospect. The project is located approximately 30km southwest of Tonopah in Nevada, USA, and covers an area of more than 390 acres.


Project Highlights

· Grab samples assay up to 21% zinc, 6.5% lead, 3.3% copper and 253 g/t silver 

· Mineralisation intermittently exposed and sampled over 1.7km strike length 

· Samples also contain high levels of high-tech metals tellurium and cobalt 


Geology, Mineralisation and Past Exploration

Zinc skarns are important not only as a source of zinc, lead, copper, silver and other associated metals but also as indicators of buried porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits. As a class of mineral deposit they include a number of world class zinc-silver deposits such as Antamina in Peru.


The Paymaster skarn mineralisation was originally prospected in the late 1950’s under US Defense Minerals Exploration Administration grant system. A government mining engineer recommended that the project be drill tested, but records suggest this did not take place and no production ensued.


In 1960, it was the subject of a brief publication by the US Geological Survey when zinc rich secondary clay minerals, sphalerite (zinc sulphide), galena (lead sulphide) and magnetite were identified in a pyroxene-garnet-quartz skarn mineral assemblage at the eastern end of the area now claimed by the Company.  The prospector scale workings were later described in a Geological Survey of Nevada publication in 1991 by an acknowledged world expert on skarn deposits, Lawrence (Larry) Meinert who, on the basis of his observations, concluded that the Paymaster skarn must be part of a much larger hydrothermal system.


Within the Company’s claim holdings, the skarn mineralisation has recently been traced westward over a total distance of 1.7km in a number of wide spaced and very shallow prospector pits. Seven grab samples of the skarn mineralisation exposed in or excavated from the pits average 10.1% zinc (maximum 20.9%), 1.5% lead (max. 6.5%) 134 g/t silver (max 253 g/t or 7.3 ounces/ton) and 0.68% copper (maximum 3.4%).


The skarn samples also contain up to 0.11% cobalt (average of 419ppm or 0.045%) and up to 58ppm tellurium (average 31ppm) and 782ppm bismuth (average 315ppm).


The mineralised skarn samples were collected largely from one stratigraphic horizon within Cambrian age limestone in contact with shale and 1 mile south of the limestone contact with the Cretaceous age Lone Mountain granite pluton.  Where sampled the skarn appears to be associated with cross cutting faults and the continuity along strike between exposures is currently unknown but pinch and swell is seen on a local scale.


Follow-up soil sampling programme was completed by the Company in 2019:


· 165 soil samples

· Significant elevated levels of Ag, Cu, Zn, Co and Pb over a strike length of over 2,000 metres, maximum values:


Ag: 17.5 ppm

Cu: 896 ppm

Zn: 872 ppm

Co: 33 ppm

Pb: 2251 ppm


A further two zones of zinc-silver mineralisation have also been identified in the field:


Valley Prospect

· New thick skarn zone observed in the field: Approximately 350m long and up to 8m thick

· Rock sample taken from historic shaft spoil assayed 7.5% zinc, 4.3% lead and 180 g/t silver


East Slope Prospect

· 650m long zinc soil anomaly (100-250 ppm Zinc) surrounding previously sampled outcrop of zinc-silver-cobalt bearing skarn mineralisation, including 175m long 250-500 ppm zinc soil anomaly

· Previous rock sample assays up to 20.9% zinc, 0.11% cobalt and 198 ppm silver within the prospect  


Next Steps

Follow up mapping, sampling, geophysics are now planned to identify future drilling targets.



Storuman Fluorspar Project, Sweden


The Company’s 100% owned Storuman Project is located in north central Sweden and is linked by the E12 highway to the port city of Mo-i-Rana in Norway and by road and rail to the port of Umeå on the Gulf of Bothnia.



JORC Compliant Mineral Resource



Million Tonnes (Mt)

Fluorspar (CaF2 %)











Exploitation (Mine) Permit

The Company, together with its Swedish Lawyers, prepared and submitted, on 3 May 2019, a detailed appeal to the Swedish Government against the decision by the Swedish Mining Inspectorate to reject Tertiary’s Exploitation (Mine) Permit in its current form. The Company now awaits feedback from the Swedish Government in response to its appeal.



MB Fluorspar Project, Nevada, USA


The MB Property comprises 60 contiguous mining claims and is located 19km southwest of the town of Eureka in central Nevada, USA. The state of Nevada is widely and justifiably recognised to be one of the most attractive mining jurisdictions in the world. Eureka is located on US Highway 50 and the main railroad is located 165km to the north of the deposit providing bulk freight distribution to the East and West of the USA. The USA, like Europe, is a key fluorspar market currently importing the majority of its fluorspar requirements. Rail access to the west coast provides access to Asian markets, which may be a target market in the future.


JORC Compliant Mineral Resource



Million Tonnes (Mt)

Fluorspar (CaF2 %)











Metallurgical Testwork

Early metallurgical testwork completed at SGS Lakefield has indicated that the ore in certain areas of the deposit is metallurgically complex, presenting processing challenges, and therefore the Company has engaged the services of one of the world’s leading consultant fluorspar metallurgists to assist with the testwork. Progress has been slow during the period 2018/2019 due to lack of available funding. The Company has budgeted further testwork during 2020 subject to available funds.


Following successful completion of the metallurgical testwork, the Company will progress to modelling various production scenarios and optimisation of the transport method/cost from mine to the USA market and ports. Successful completion of these work programmes should enable the Company to work towards completion of a Scoping Study. Further work required for the completion of the Scoping Study may include an additional phase of drilling to target higher grade mineralisation, in line with the recommendations received from the appraisal of the MB deposit from world renowned economic geologist, Dr Richard Sillitoe.


Lassedalen Fluorspar Project, Norway


The Lassedalen Fluorspar Project is favourably located near Kongsberg, 80km to the south-west of Oslo in Norway. It is less than 1km from highway E134 and approximately 50km from the nearest Norwegian port. The Company views this resource as strategically important for the European market alongside its Storuman Project.



JORC Compliant Mineral Resource



Million Tonnes (Mt)

Fluorspar (CaF2 %)





Given the commitments on its other projects and available funding, further exploration at the Lassedalen Project has been a lower priority in 2018/2019.



Strategic Relationship with Possehl Erzkontor GmbH & Co. KG


Further to the signing of a MOU in 2017 with leading global commodities trading group, Possehl Erzkontor GmbH & Co. KG (“Possehl”), a wholly owned subsidiary of CREMER, Possehl continue to support the Company with the development of its projects.



Non-Core Projects


Kaaresselkä and Kiekerömaa Gold Projects, Finland

Following the successful sale of its two legacy gold assets, Kaaresselkä and Kiekerömaa in Finland, to TSX‑V listed Aurion Resources Ltd (“Aurion”), the Company retains a royalty interest in the projects. Aurion continue to be supported by Kinross Gold Corporation which currently holds a 9.9% interest in Aurion.


Rosendal Tantalum Project, Finland

The Exploration Licence for the project expired in October 2015 and the Company has applied for a renewal of the Licence. If the Company is unsuccessful in finding a suitable partner or buyer to progress the project, it is unlikely the renewal will be granted.



Health and Safety

The Group has maintained strict compliance with its Health and Safety Policy and is pleased to report there have been no lost timeaccidents during the year.




No Group company has had or been notified of any instance of non-compliance with environmental legislation in any of the countries in which they work. The Company has previously received a prestigious national award for its innovative reclamation and sustainable mineral development work on its MB Project in Nevada, USA.




Financial Review & Performance


The Group is currently in the earlier stages of the typical mining development cycle and so has no income other than cost recovery from the management contract with Sunrise Resources plc and a small amount of bank interest. Consequently, the Group is not expected to report profits until it is able to profitably develop, dispose of, or otherwise commercialise its exploration and development projects.


The Group reports a loss of £831,507 for the year (2018: £2,267,197) after administration costs of £502,788 (2018: £507,931) and after crediting interest receivable of £234 (2018: £142). The loss includes impairment of the Lassedalen Project of £442,917, expensed pre-licence and reconnaissance exploration costs of £75,778 (2018: £38,725). Administration costs include £8,021 (2018: £8,997) as non-cash costs for the value of certain share warrants held by employees as required by IFRS 2.


Revenue includes £189,742 (2018: £218,841) from the provision of m anagement, administration and office services provided to Sunrise Resources plc, to the benefit of both companies through efficient utilisation of services.


The financial statements show that, at 30 September 2019, the Group had net current assets of £21,499 (2018: £249,787). This represents the cash position after allowing for receivables and trade and other payables. These amounts are shown in the Consolidated and Company Statements of Financial Position and are also components of the Net Assets of the Group. Net assets also include various “intangible” assets of the Company. As the name suggests, these intangible assets are not cash assets but include this year’s and previous years’ accrued expenditure on minerals projects where that expenditure meets the criteria set out in Note 1(d) (accounting policies) to the Financial Statements. The intangible assets total £2,461,972 (2018: £2,670,386) and the breakdown by project is shown in Note 2 to the Financial Statements.


Expenditure which does not meet the criteria set out in Notes 1(d) and 1(n), such as pre-licence and reconnaissance costs, are expensed and add to the Company’s loss. The loss reported in any year can also include expenditure that was carried forward in previous reporting periods as an intangible asset but which the Board determines is “impaired” in the reporting period.


The extent to which expenditure is carried forward as intangible assets is a measure of the extent to which the value of the Company’s expenditure is preserved.


The intangible asset value of a project does not equate to the realisable or market value of a particular project which will, in the Directors’ opinion, be at least equal in value and often considerably higher. Hence the Company’s market capitalisation on AIM can be in excess of or less than the net asset value of the Group.


Details of intangible assets, property, plant and equipment and investments are set out in Notes 8, 9 and 10 of the financial statements.


The Financial Statements of a mineral exploration company can provide a moment in time snapshot of the financial health of the Company but do not provide a reliable guide to the performance of the Company or its Board and its long-term potential to create value.


Key Performance Indicators

The usual financial key performance indicators (“KPIs”) are neither applicable nor appropriate to measurement of the value creation of a company involved in mineral exploration and which currently has no turnover other than cost recovery. The directors consider that the detailed information in the Operating Review is the best guide to the Group’s progress and performance during the year.


The Company does seek to reduce overhead costs, where practicable, and is reporting reduced administration costs this financial year – current year £502,788 (2018: £507,931).




During the 2019 financial year the Company raised a total of £250,000, before expenses, as shown in Note 14 of the Financial Statements.


The directors prepare annual budgets and cash flow projections that extend beyond 12 months from the date of this report.  Given the Group’s cash position at the year-end (£50,617), these projections include the proceeds of future fundraising necessary within the next 12 months to meet the Group’s overheads and planned discretionary project expenditures and to maintain the Company and its subsidiaries as going concerns.




A biannual review is carried out by the directors to assess whether there are any indications of impairment of the Group’s assets.

Investments in Group undertakings

The directors have reviewed the carrying value of the Company’s investments in shares of subsidiary undertakings totalling £224,890, by reference to estimated recoverable amounts. In turn, this requires an assessment of the recoverability of underlying exploration assets in those subsidiaries in accordance with IFRS 6.

Loans to Group undertakings

A review of the recoverability of loans to subsidiary undertakings, totalling £1,971,407 has been carried out. This indicated a potential credit loss arising in the year of £486,907 (2018: £4,681,523) relating to Tertiary Gold Limited. The assessment and provision arises from the fact that there has been an impairment of the underlying exploration assets held by Tertiary Gold Limited, leading to doubt over recoverability of the loan. The provision made against the receivable has reduced it to the value of the underlying development assets.

Risks & Uncertainties

The Board regularly reviews the risks to which the Group is exposed and ensures through its meetings and regular reporting that these risks are minimised as far as possible.

The principal risks and uncertainties facing the Group at this stage in its development and in the foreseeable future are detailed below together with risk mitigation strategies employed by the Board.




Exploration Risk


The Group’s business is mineral exploration and evaluation which are speculative activities. There is no certainty that the Group will be successful in the definition of economic mineral deposits, or that it will proceed to the development of any of its projects or otherwise realise their value.


The directors bring many years of combined mining and exploration experience and an established track record in mineral discovery.

The Company mainly targets advanced and drill ready exploration projects in order to avoid higher risk grass roots exploration.

Resource Risk


All mineral projects have risk associated with defined grade and continuity. Mineral Reserves are always subject to uncertainties in the underlying assumptions which include geological projections and metal/mineral assumptions.


Resources and reserves are estimated by independent specialists on behalf of the Group in accordance with accepted industry standards and codes. The Directors are realistic in the use of mineral price forecasts and impose rigorous practices in the QA/QC programmes that support its independent estimates.

Development Risk


Delays in permitting, or changes in permit legislation and/or regulation, financing and commissioning a project may result in delays to the Group meeting production targets or even the Company ultimately not receiving the required permits and in extreme cases loss of title.




In order to reduce development risk in future, the directors will ensure that its permit application processes and financing applications are robust and thorough.

Commodity Risk


Changes in commodity prices can affect the economic viability of mining projects and affect decisions on continuing exploration activity.




The Company consistently reviews commodity prices and trends for its key projects throughout the development cycle.

Mining and Processing Technical Risk


Notwithstanding the completion of metallurgical testwork, test mining and pilot studies indicating the technical viability of a mining operation, variations in mineralogy, mineral continuity, ground stability, groundwater conditions and other geological conditions may still render a mining and processing operation economically or technically non-viable.


From the earliest stages of exploration the directors look to use consultants and contractors who are leaders in their field and in future will seek to strengthen the executive and the Board with additional technical and financial skills as the Company transitions from exploration to production.

Environmental Risk


Exploration and development of a project can be adversely affected by environmental legislation and the unforeseen results of environmental studies carried out during evaluation of a project. Once a project is in production unforeseen events can give rise to environmental liabilities.


Mineral exploration carries a lower level of environmental liability than mining. The Company has adopted an Environmental Policy and the directors avoid the acquisition of projects where liability for legacy environmental issues might fall upon the Company.

Political Risk


All countries carry political risk that can lead to interruption of activity. Politically stable countries can have enhanced environmental and social permitting risks, risks of strikes and changes to taxation, whereas less developed countries can have, in addition, risks associated with changes to the legal framework, civil unrest and government expropriation of assets.




The Company’s strategy currently restricts its activities to stable, democratic and mining friendly jurisdictions.


The Company has adopted a strong Anti-corruption Policy and Code of Conduct and this is strictly enforced.

Partner Risk


Whilst there has been no past evidence of this, the Group can be adversely affected if joint venture partners are unable or unwilling to perform their obligations or fund their share of future developments.



The Company currently maintains control of certain key projects so that it can control the pace of exploration and reduce partner risk.


For projects where other parties are responsible for critical payments and expenditures the Company’s agreements legislate that such payments and expenditures are met.


Financing & Liquidity Risk


Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company will not be able to raise working capital for its ongoing activities. 

The Group’s goal is to finance its exploration and evaluation activities from future cash flows, but until that point is reached the Company is reliant on raising working capital from equity markets or from industry sources. There is no certainty such funds will be available when needed.



The Company maintains a good network of contacts in the capital markets that has historically met its financing requirements.

The Company’s low overheads and cost-effective exploration strategies help reduce its funding requirements. Nevertheless, further equity issues will be required over the next 12 months.

Financial Instruments


Details of risks associated with the Group’s Financial Instruments are given in Note 19 to the financial statements.



The directors are responsible for the Group’s systems of internal financial control. Although no systems of internal financial control can provide absolute assurance against material misstatement or loss, the Group’s systems are designed to provide reasonable assurance that problems are identified on a timely basis and dealt with appropriately.

In carrying out their responsibilities, the directors have put in place a framework of controls to ensure as far as possible that ongoing financial performance is monitored in a timely manner, that corrective action is taken and that risk is identified as early as practically possible, and they have reviewed the effectiveness of internal financial control.

The Board, subject to delegated authority, reviews capital investment, property sales and purchases, additional borrowing facilities, guarantees and insurance arrangements.


Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report may contain certain statements and expressions of belief, expectation or opinion which are forward-looking statements, and which relate, inter alia, to the Company’s proposed strategy, plans and objectives or to the expectations or intentions of the Company’s directors. Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors beyond the control of the Company that could cause the actual performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from such forward-looking statements.

This Strategic Report was approved by the Board on 18 February 2020 and signed on its behalf

Richard Clemmey

Managing Director

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