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There is little doubt that historians will conclude that the global impact of COVID-19 represents the worst crisis since the Great Depression. The pandemic is leaving deep and enduring scars on the global economy, taxing health and medical services to the limit, depriving children of education, while decimating sectors of commerce and industry and in particular leisure and travel.
But history has shown on numerous occasions that the indomitable human spirit has a remarkable capacity for survival and evolution amidst existential crises. As areas such as traditional High St retail and seem to be drawing to a close, sectors such as commodities and mining are booming thanks to a near perfect storm created in part by the COVID crisis.
In October 2020, the IMF stated that the total bill for the global pandemic would reach some $28tn (£21.5tn) in lost output. The rapid intervention by global Governments with rate cuts, looser monetary policies and fiscal stimulus have certainly avoided a financial catastrophe, but at the same time these actions have effectively weakened fiat currencies and increased demand for commodities.
Historically the consequences of such events invariably see a strong recovery in commodity markets. This factor was clearly in evidence as 2020 progressed, and as the COVID noose tightened, prices of commodities such as Iron Ore, Copper and Nickel, along with precious metals including Gold and Silver, all increased in value.
In the wake of the sharp economic contractions in 2020, the IMF forecast that only China was expected to emerge with any economic growth during the year. 2021 is set to be a different story however, and with the vaccine rollout accelerating globally, there are expectations for sharp recoveries across most of the leading economies. Added to this, the new $1.9tn stimulus package in the US from the Biden administration will see heavy investment into ageing US infrastructure. These factors should ensure sustained demand and pricing for iron ore and base metals.
There is also the revolution taking place within the automotive industry to consider. The move towards EV’s is accelerating rapidly, with a plethora of commitments from key automotive manufacturers such as Ford, Volvo, BMW and Jaguar to switch to electric only production in the next few years. This move of course sounds the death knell for the internal combustion engine, but at the same time is driving the cost of battery metals and component commodities such as lithium, nickel, cobalt and graphite
The net effect is that mining, specific commodities and minerals, along with the sector’s nebulous support service industries are undergoing a significant global resurgence. Projects considered uneconomical to develop, and that have remained dormant for years are returning to life, newly financed and fast tracked thanks to the array of modern desktop technologies, data and modelling tools.
In a note published last December, Goldman Sachs outlined their expectations for another substantial deficit next year (27Mt, GSe), supported by a combination of gradually decelerating China steel demand growth, sharply re-accelerating demand for Western steel and tepid supply growth. GS added that the weighting of the 2021 deficit to the front half of the year points to fundamental support for a sustained price path higher over Q1 and Q2, revising near-term targets for the benchmark 62% iron ore price to 3M $140/t and 6M $150/t.
These numbers of course imply material upside longer term, and GS have also upgraded full year forecasts for 2021 to $120/t ($90/t previously) and for 2022 to $95/t ($75/t previously).
- Chinese steel production has remained strong & production in 2021 remains supported by a healthy infrastructure and property project pipeline, alongside a resurgence in China’s manufacturing capex cycle and steel exports.
- With construction and heavy industry remaining relatively less affected by second-wave lockdowns, Western steel demand is also recovering ahead of expectations. Significant regional price strength in the US and Europe is likely to spur further blast furnace restarts (and hence iron demand) after an aggressive suspensions phase in 2020 contributed to the current steel supply shortfalls as demand recovers.
- Iron ore supply growth is likely to stagnate in 2021. The limited growth that exists next year is concentrated with Vale Brazil operations, which is why their recent substantive downgrade to production guidance has had such an outsized positive impact on price.
- Chinese mill iron ore inventories remain low, raising the prospect of restocking bursts through the year.
For Cadence Minerals, this bullish outlook for iron ore puts two very firm ticks in the box, firstly for what is widely regarded as the company’s flagship Amapa Iron Ore project in Brazil, and secondly the investment in ASX and TSX listed Macarthur Minerals, with whom Amapa shares numerous infrastructural and evolutionary similarities.
Bringing a project the size and scale of Amapa back to life has as expected proved to be a complex and challenging process. Nonetheless, DEV Mineração, Cadence and Indo Sino Pty Ltd are reaching a legal settlement with the project creditors, and with the ruling in February by the Commercial Court of São Paulo that port operations and the shipment of iron ore stockpiles can begin, the company is set to take the first practical step towards bringing the project back to life, which will in turn bring benefits to the Amapa region in terms of employment, health and education.
Once the creditor settlement agreement has been signed, an initial $2.5m investment will be released from escrow, meaning that the Pedra Branca Alliance (Cadence & Indo Sino JV co) will own 99.9% of DEV, the owner of the entire Amapa mining and processing assets,. At this point Cadence will proportionately own 20% of Amapa. The next step will involve a further $3.5m investment following the granting of the necessary environmental licenses required to operate the mine, which will see Cadence move to a 27% stake, with an option to increase to 49% once project financing has been raised to complete recommissioning and commence production.
Last November Cadence completed an updated Mineral Resource Estimate for Amapa, which increased the 2012 Anglo American MRE estimate by 21% to 176.7 million tonnes (“Mt”) grading 39.7% Fe in the Indicated category. With a production capacity of 5.3Mt per annum, the survey also noted there was significant potential to increase the resource base after the completion of metallurgical and optimisation studies.
Lake Giles Iron Project
Cadence also has a stake (c1%) in ASX and TSX listed Macarthur Minerals, owner of the Lake Giles Iron Project near Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. The Lake Giles project consists of the Moonshine magnetite deposit and the Ularring hematite deposit, which together have an indicated Mineral Resource Estimate of 218Mt grading 27.5% Fe in the Indicated category.
Lake Giles and Amapa share many similarities in regard to facilities and production routes, and with the Feasibility Study already underway, Lake Giles has a 3.4 Mt per annum production target with potential to scale-up operations.
A recent paper published by commodities expert Fastmarkets FB noted that global lithium supply was developing at accelerating pace due to strong and continually growing demand. In particular the demand for compounds used in lithium-ion (li-ion) batteries such as lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide has prompted lithium producers to expand total production while diversifying their investments in different lithium operations to ramp up production and diminish asset risk.
Despite an effective over supply in 2018-2019 that saw a price moratorium and a 50% fall in the price of battery-grade lithium carbonate in China, the subsequent seismic shift to bring forward EV production and commitments from major automotive manufacturers around the world saw the price of Lithium in China surge to an 18 month high of $9450 per tonne in January 2021.
The Fastmarkets’ research team expects global lithium demand to grow to at least 1.1 million tonnes per year of lithium-carbonate equivalent (LCE) by 2025 from an expected 300,000 tonnes of LCE in 2019, with Global lithium producers set to boost output year on year to maintain pace with growing demand. Despite this, as can be seen from the table above the numbers still don’t add up, with massive shortfalls projected by Benchmark Intelligence in lithium and other key constituent metals by 2030.
Over 2018, China emerged as the world’s leading lithium-processing hub with the rapid growth of companies like Ganfeng Lithium, which specialise in converting lithium concentrate from hard rock.
Cinovec – European Metals Holdings
The Cinovec project is the largest hard rock lithium resource in Europe and 4th largest non-brine resource in the world. Perfectly located to become the central lithium supply hub for the European EV industry, Cadence owns a 12% stake in AIM listed European Metals Holdings (EMH), which in turn owns 49% of the Cinovec project, (51% owned by utilities giant CEZ Group).
Cinovec is a potential low-cost producer at the bottom of the cost curve, and will sustainably supply 25,267 tpa lithium hydroxide or 22,500 tpa lithium carbonate into the European battery market.
Sonora Lithium Project
Cadence is a 30% joint venture partner with Bacanora Lithium (BCN) on the Fleur Lease (Mexalit & Megalit) at the Sonora Lithium Project in Mexico. A completed feasibility study values Sonora Mexico at US$1.25bn NPV, with some of the lowest production costs at $4,000/t in the industry.
AIM listed Bacanora is focused on building a 35,000 tpa lithium carbonate operation at Sonora with 50% owner and take off partner Ganfeng Lithium.
Australia Hard Rock Lithium Projects
Cadence owns three dormant hard rock lithium assets in Australia. These are Picasso (Western Australia – WA), Litchfield (Northern Territories – NT) and Alcoota (NT) all of which are in regions with proven lithium mineralisation and supportive mining infrastructure.
The Litchfield project, located near Darwin (NT), has an exploration license granted and is contiguous to Core Lithium’s (ASX: CXO) territory. Core has a JORC compliant mineral resource of 8.55Mt @ 1.33% Li2O for its Finnis project (for all six deposits).
Yangibana Rare Earths Project
Operated by ASX listed Hastings Technology Metals, Yangibana is a substantial Rare Earths deposit near Gascoyne in Western Australia. Drilling and sampling have revealed high concentrations of Neodymium and Praseodymium (NdPr), essential components in permanent magnets used in electric vehicles.
Cadence is a 30% joint venture partner with Hastings on part of the Yangibana Rare Earth Element Project. Probable Ore Reserves within the tenements held by Cadence are just over 2m tonnes with TREO of 1.66%.
The current mine plan anticipates production to start from the joint venture areas (Yangibana) in year 6.
A Key Role?
Around the world today there are countless mining exploration companies, commodity investors and mine operators with projects offering scope for development and potential for investment. The challenge with any project of this nature is matching the opportunity with the macro backdrop, projected demand for the commodity alongside capex vs. return, production routes, shipping and completion of cycle to bring the product to the customer.
Rarely if ever has the industry been presented with so compelling a backdrop for the commodity market as a whole. The significant global resurgence seen in the mining sector at present given is entirely sustainable given the level of asset purchases and spending by Governments to rejuvenate damaged economies and the inevitable resulting erosion in fiat currency value.
As economies emerge from the havoc wrought by the COVID virus and restrictions on spending are lifted, it is clear that in many cases demand will outstrip availability. This will apply almost without exception across the commodity spectrum – iron ore for steel to fund reconstruction – lithium, nickel, cobalt, graphite and rare earths to address the burgeoning demand for lithium-ion battery production.
There is no doubt that the recovering global economy is embarking on the next great Commodity Supercycle. Many mining groups and commodity project investors will benefit from this phenomenon by owning the right projects, at the right stage of evolution at the right time. On the evidence available today, Cadence Minerals is certainly one of them.
Cadence Minerals plc (LON:KNDC) CEO Kiran Morzaria joins DirectorsTalk Interviews to discuss the macro picture for commodities and Cadence investments, including EMH, BCN, Lithium Australia and the lithium price going forward. We also look at the effects of the macro environment on BCN and EMH, progress made, plans for the JV with Lithium Australia, iron ore and the drivers, the flagship Amapa project and what catalysts we should be looking out for.
Cadence Minerals #KDNC CEO, Kiran Morzaria discusses the Company’s investments including:
- Amapa Iron Ore Project
- Macarthur Minerals Lake Giles Iron Project
- European Metals Holdings #EMH and Cinovec Lithium project
- Joint Ventures:
- Yangibana Rare Earths project
- Sonora Lithium project
- Hard Rock Lithium assets
Shares in Cadence Minerals (AIM/NEX: KDNC; OTC: KDNCY), the AIM listed investor into mineral resources discovery and development, have enjoyed a solid start to the start of 2021. Buoyed by the progress of the company’s flagship Amapa project in Brazil, the growth in Cadence value can also be attributed to the portfolio of strategic investments, including a 15% stake in European Metals (AIM: EMH), owner of Cinovec lithium and tin project, soon to be a cornerstone lithium supply hub for the electric vehicle (EV) industry.
In addition to this, progress has been reported this week at the Australian Rare Earths Project at Yangibana, one of the early stage investments made by Cadence which is owned and operated by ASX listed Hastings Technology Metals (ASX:HAS). Located in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia and covering some 650 sq km, the project contains substantial Neodymium and Praseodymium resources, vital components in the manufacture of permanent magnets. These of course are used in a wide and expanding range of advanced and high-tech products including EV’s, wind turbines, robotics, medical applications and others.
Hastings announced drill results from the Bald Hill deposit as part of its drilling programme across Yangibana. Bald Hill is the largest Yangibana deposit in terms of estimated Mineral Resources and calculated Ore Reserves and forms a key component to the overall Yangibana project. As a result, key project infrastructure, including the beneficiation plant and tailings storage facilities, have been placed in close proximity to this deposit.
Results from the extension drilling program at Bald Hill, the largest deposit at the Yangibana Rare Earths Project, confirm continuation of mineralisation along strike to the south connecting to the 4km long Simon’s Find – Frasers trend, with a best 3.26% total rare earth oxides (TREO) occurring across a 4m sample from a 63m shallow intersection.
The Bald Hill Resource Estimate will be updated during Q1 2021. Hastings COO Andrew Reid said the results provided “further confirmation that the unique geology at Yangibana is capable of underpinning a high-quality, long-life operation.”
“These drilling results continue to demonstrate the potential scale and quality not just of Bald Hill but other Yangibana deposits and we estimate that the project has additional growth potential..” he added.
Hastings has signed a long term binding Master Agreement with German Automotive Tier 1 supplier, Schaeffler Technologies AG, with obligation to supply a substantial volume of MREC over an initial period of 10 years
At Yangibana, Cadence owns 30% of 3 Mining Leases, 6 Exploration Licences while operator Hastings Technology Metals owns the remaining 70% of the joint venture areas, and the rest of the project.
While the Bald Hill deposit doesn’t form part of the Yangibana joint venture area, there is nonetheless a positive read-over for the Cadence JV territories. Of course any yield from the Cadence JV areas will be processed at the beneficiation plant and tailings storage facilities, located in close proximity to the Bald Hill deposit.
Cadence CEO Kiran Morzaria emphasised this point: “Bald Hill is key to the Yangibana project, and as Andrew points out the drilling results continue to demonstrate the potential scale and quality not just of Bald Hill but the other deposits and overall project growth potential.”
“While our interests lie to the west of Bald Hill, for Cadence there is a really positive read-over into the value and future potential of our joint venture with Hastings,” Morzaria added.
Probable Ore Reserves within the tenements 30% held by Cadence are just over 2m tonnes with TREO of 1.66%. The current mine plan anticipates production to start from the joint venture areas (Yangibana and Yangibana North) in year 6 and continue to the end of mine life (year 13).
More info, including a breakdown of the probable ore reserves can be found here: https://www.cadenceminerals.com/projects/yangibana-rare-earth-project-2/
Cadence Minerals plc (AIM/NEX: KDNC), is pleased to announce its interim results for the six months ended 30 June 2020.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been deep and fundamental. The pandemic has driven huge changes in the way we work and live the long-term effects of which are hard to predict with any great degree of accuracy. The reaction by governments around the world has for the large part involved economic stimuli with central banks cutting interests and the launch of huge quantitative easing schemes.
It is the latter, and in particular, the stimulus packages in China that have been beneficial to our investment portfolio. . China’s impact in relation to the rapid increase in iron ore prices has been clear. It is still the world’s biggest buyer of industrial commodities, and the vast majority seaborne trade in iron ore goes there. Indeed, in the first week of June, China’s steel blast furnaces were operating at 92% of capacity, which is above the 80-85% rates considered normal. Currently, indicators of construction activity look strong and a pipeline of orders had already been building before the pandemic struck. In its aftermath, construction has been given an extra push by the Chinese Government’s stimulus package.
With this macroeconomic background, the directors believe that the Company’s investments have performed well. A detailed review of which was recently published in the annual report released in June 2020 and in further announcements subsequent to this date. We have provided some of the highlights from our investments over the period below.
The Company also raised £1.25 million of new funds (before expenses) from new and existing investors as announced on 21st August. These funds were raised for general working capital and to provide flexibility to the Company to repay loan notes from cash reserves rather than from its holdings in quoted investments.
Amapa, Iron Ore Mine (“Amapa”)
· Amapa was owned by Anglo American plc and Cliffs Natural Resources and consists of a large-scale iron ore mine, beneficiation plant, railway, and private port. In 2012 the operation produced 6.1 Mt of iron ore concentrate and reported operating profits from their 70% ownership in the Amapá Project of US$120 million (100% – US$171 million). Before its sale in 2012, Anglo American valued its 70% stake at US$462m in its 2012 Annual Report (100% – US$600m).
· The remaining major precondition for Cadence to make its initial investment into Amapa requires DEV Mineraço S.A’s (“DEV”) to reach a settlement agreement with the secured bank creditors (“Bank Creditors”). On completion of the conditions and the release of the Cadence escrow monies, Cadence will become a 20% shareholder in Amapa via our joint venture company which will own 99.9% of DEV.
· DEV, Cadence and Indo Sino Pty Ltd (“the Investors”) have continued a constructive dialogue with the secured the Bank Creditors, and the parties are currently negotiating the settlement terms as proposed by the Bank Creditors.
· Iron Ore Stockpile Shipment – as announced on the 21 August – Companhia Docas de Santana (“CDSA”), a public (municipal) company and the port operator requested some additional non-statutory contractual requirements and undertakings. DEV has provided the requested documentation and continues to liaise with the State of Amapa and SEMA (Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente). Cadence understands that SEMA will provide the required documentation imminently. Cadence will provide an update once the first shipment is underway.
European Metals Holdings Limited (“EMH”)
· In late April 2020, EMH advised that shareholders had approved the investment of EUR 29.1 million by CEZ a.s. (“CEZ”) for a 51% equity interest in Geomet, EMH’s Czech subsidiary and holder of the Cinovec licenses at the Extraordinary General Meeting held on 23 April 2020. The investment of EUR 29.1 million will see the Cinovec project fully funded to the decision to construct.
· In June 2020, EMH European Metals advised that the Czech Ministry of the Environment had granted Geomet an updated Preliminary Mining Permit related to the Eastern part of the Cinovec deposit. The permit was issued for a period of 8 years. A Preliminary Mining Permit is a necessary legal pre-qualification before obtaining a Final Mining Permit and guarantees EMH the priority right to apply for and obtain a Final Mining Area and a Final Mining Permit.
Macarthur Minerals (“Macarthur”)
· Announced Moonshine Magnetite Mineral Resource upgrade
· RCR Mining Technologies appointed to examine rail unloading infrastructure solution at Esperance Port
· Proposal for development of a Commercial Track Access Agreement received from Arc Infrastructure
· lodgement of applications for land access to develop a 93km haul road from its Lake Giles Iron Project to a proposed rail siding adjacent to the Perth to Kalgoorlie rail line
· Finalisation of land tenure agreement for the development of its proposed Magnetite processing plant at Lake Giles
Bacanora Lithium Plc (“Bacanora”)
· Cadence owns a 30% stake in the Mexalit S.A. de CV (“Mexalit”) joint venture which forms part of the Sonora Lithium Project in Northern Mexico.
· In late May 2020, Bacanora provided an update which included. The Sonora government continues to maintain measures to prevent the spread of Covid-19 which meant Bacanora’s Hermosillo pilot plant was placed in care and maintenance in late March 2020 after shipping samples to its engineering partners in order to maintain the Front End Engineering Design schedule. The pilot plant will remain closed until conditions are considered safe, and the Government lifts its restrictions.
· As a result of the return to work in China in late April 2020, the Ganfeng lithium test plant and project team resumed work on the Sonora flowsheet optimisation and process engineering. After the completion of the flow sheet engineering Ganfeng will provide Bacanora with an Engineering, Procurement and Construction style engineering proposal to produce downstream battery-grade lithium products from the Sonora Lithium Project.
Yangibana Rare Earth Project
· Cadence owns 30% of 3 Mining Leases, 6 Exploration Licences which form part of the Yangibana Rare Earth Deposit. Hastings Technology Metals owns the remaining 70%.
· Hasting’s signed long term binding Master Agreement with German Automotive Tier 1 supplier, Schaeffler technologies AG. Hasting’s obligation is to supply a substantial volume of MREC over an initial period of 10 years
· Total Yangibana Project CAPEX revised to A$449m from A$517mresulting in 13% or A$68M reduction in CAPEX based on Hydrometallurgical Plant relocation to the Pilbara
During the period the Group made a loss before taxation of £1.26 million (6 months ended 30 June 2019: £0.29 million year ended 31 December 2019: £2.27 million). There was a weighted basic loss per share of 1.336p (30 June 2019: 0.331p, 31 December 2018: 2.544p). As a result of unrealised foreign exchange differences, comprehensive loss for the period was £1.42 million (30 June 2019: £0.24 million, 31 December 2019: £2.04 million).
The total assets of the group decreased from £18.77 million at 31 December 2019 to £17.89 million. Of this amount £0.37 million represent the market value of our investments at the period end. Borrowings were reduced from £2.98m at 31 December 2019 to £2.08m at 30 June 2020.
During the period our net cash outflow from operating activities was £0.67 million, and our net cash position was up £0.12 million at £2.38 million.
This announcement contains inside information for the purposes of Article 7 of EU Regulation 596/2014.
For further information:
|Cadence Minerals plc||+44 (0) 7879 584153|
|WH Ireland Limited (NOMAD & Joint Broker)||+44 (0) 207 220 1666|
|Novum Securities Limited (Joint Broker)||+44 (0) 207 399 9400|
Link here for the group financial statements
Cadence Minerals #KDNC CEO, Kiran Morzaria offers an overview and update of the Company’s investments and ongoing strategy. Kiran then answers questions from the Vox Community where he discusses the Amapa Iron Ore Project, future milestones of European Metals Holding and the Company plans for the coming year.
Alan Green talks to Cadence Minerals #KDNC CEO Kiran Morzaria. Kiran talks about the company’s investments into the Czech Cinovec Lithium project via European Metals #EMH, Macarthur Minerals iron ore projects in Australia, plus Lithium JV’s with Bacanora in Mexico and Hastings Tech Metals at Yangibana, Australia. Kiran then elaborates on the company’s flagship Amapa Iron ore project in Brazil, discusses the latest developments re shipping the ore stockpile, the fundraise for the scoping study plus the value inflection points going forward. Alan and Kiran then go through a shareholder Q&A, before Kiran finally provides key takeaway points for. investors, highlighting the valuations on each of the projects.
Since September 2018, the board has conducted an exhaustive, ongoing round of due diligence and legal processes to bring the mine out of administration, into a recommissioning programme and ultimately back to production.
Back in April 2020, Brazil’s Commercial Court of São Paulo ruled that DEV Mineração S.A., owner of the Amapá iron ore project and 99% owned by Cadence, could commence shipment of the iron ore stockpiles situated at the wholly-owned port in Santana, Amapá, Brazil.
Independent surveys of these iron ore stockpiles indicate that some 1.39 Mt of iron ore in three stockpiles are available for immediate export with an average Fe grade of 62.12%.
Despite the impact of the Covid-19 lockdown in Brazil, shipment is still expected
to commence on schedule late Q2, early Q3 2020. The net proceeds will go to pay labour and small creditors, invest in the recommissioning of the assets and essential maintenance.
Currently rehabilitation of the mine, railway and port is expected to be completed in 2022. A production ramp up will see 5.3 million tonnes of iron ore produced per annum within 3 years of completion of the rehabilitation. The local economy will also see significant benefits, with hundreds of new jobs and employment opportunities.
The financials make impressive reading too.
Net revenues after shipping from the former Anglo American mine is forecast to be approximately $265m per annum, with EBITDA of approx $136m per annum based on a conservative iron ore price of $61 per tonne. Currently the iron ore price squeeze sees the commodity trading at up to $100 per tonne.
“This is a huge step change for Cadence,” says Cadence CEO Kiran Morzaria.
“Our range of lithium and iron ore investments continue to add value, but once
settlement is finalized with our creditors, Cadence will own 27% of Amapá, with options to acquire up to 49%. Our EBITDA forecasts will deliver a material change to current valuation metrics for our company.”
While the focus is certainly on Amapá, the rest of the Cadence portfolio is nonetheless impressive. Cornerstone stakes in projects such as the Cinovec Lithium and Tin Project in the Czech republic and Macarthur Minerals’ Lake Giles Iron Project in Western Australia has provided Cadence with opportunities to invest into assets such as Amapá.
Cinovec, 50% owned by European Metals Holdings (AIM: EMH) and Eastern European utility giant CEZ is set to become a major European and Global lithium supply hub to meet the boom in batteries and electric vehicles, with demand anticipated to grow some 800% by 2030. Cadence also has a range of other lithium and rare metal investments, plus a joint venture at the Yangibana Rare Earths project in Australia with Hastings Technology Metals (ASX: HAS).
Cadence Chairman Andrew Suckling is also a non-executive director of Macarthur Minerals (TSX-V: MMS, ASX: MIO) and chairman of the Audit Committee. Macarthur stated recently it was ‘encouraged by the robust iron ore market’, and also buoyed by the recent share price performance of Cadence Minerals, one of its largest shareholders.
City institutions are also waking up to Amapá’s potential, with broker WH Ireland noting that the “healthy margin from sales of the easy to ship iron-ore stockpile could be used to pay senior bank creditors, complete a feasibility study into the reopening of the mine and pay for some of the new infrastructure required.”
AIM listed Cadence currently trades on an asset backed market cap of just £7m, although with the current transformation cycle the company is undergoing, that
could be unlikely to last.
by Joe Miller
EU carmakers help close the gap as they race to comply with strict CO2 emissions targets
Europe has outpaced China in attracting investment for electric vehicles and battery development, securing a record €60bn last year largely as a result of Volkswagen’s push into emissions-free cars.
The figure, compiled by Brussels-based non-profit Transport and Environment, is almost 20 times higher than the last calculation, made two years ago.
In the 12 months to mid-2018, Europe had received just €3.2bn in private and public funds for electric transport, while China attracted almost €22bn. For 2019 the respective figures were €60bn and €17.1bn.
“A few years ago Europe was nowhere in the race for electric vehicle supremacy,” said Saul Lopez, who researches electric mobility at T&E. “But EU CO2 targets concentrated carmakers and governments’ minds.”
While the report did not provide specific figures for the US, it lags behind Europe and China in electric vehicle investment.
Carmakers operating in Europe have been forced to invest in zero-emission technologies to comply with rules phased in at the start of this year.
The EU directive mandates that manufacturers reduce their fleet-wide carbon footprint to an average of 95g per kilometre by 2021, or risk fines amounting to billions of euros.
Link here to read the full article
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